Domain Name System (DNS)
What does Domain Name System mean?
The worldwide standardized assignment of speaking URLs to numeric IP addresses is called the Domain Name System. The construct is often compared to a telephone book. Just as a resident has a name with an associated phone number, a server has a name with its own IP address. In the case of humans, we can locate the connection via an online telephone service. For the server, we type the following command in the CMD or PowerShell window:
- nslookup www.google.com (CMD)
- test-netconnection www.google.com (PowerShell)
The requested information about the remote server returns an IPv4 address in the form 220.127.116.11. If, on the other hand, the return value looks like 2a00:1450:400a:803::2004, it is a number in the more modern IPv6 format. The way back, if someone knows the IP number and wants to derive the server name from it, is called reverse lookup.
ICANN monitors the DNS tree structure
The DNS has two main advantages. On the one hand, the IP address can be changed without changing the URL for the user. On the other hand, the speaking server name can be linked to load balancing, so that the computer user is redirected to a currently less busy server without noticing. The worldwide DNS data is stored in a database that is automatically updated and forwarded by DNS servers. The highest administrative authority is ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). It monitors the correct functioning of the name hierarchy in the Domain Name System DNS.
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