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Industrial Control System (ICS)

Industrial Control System (ICS) is a term that generally describes different control systems as well as the corresponding instruments. Industrial Control System (ICS) are generally used for industrial control of the processes. They are

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  • small modular control systems for control panels or
  • enormous interactive distributed systems for controllers that are interconnected.
[/su_list] Whether low modular or hugely interactive, they all receive data from the so-called remote sensors. These measure the process variables so that they can then be compared with the setpoints. Then the command functions are derived, which are used via the actuators for process control (e.g. control valves).

Wide, high-volume systems are usually implemented using SCADA systems or DCS systems as well as (memory) programmable control systems. These control systems are often found in chemical processing, pulp or paper manufacturing, oil processing, etc.

Information on Industrial Control System (ICS) applications

1. discrete control systems

The simplest control systems are based on small discrete controllers, each with one control loop. These are usually button mounted, providing a direct view of the front panel and allowing the operator manual intervention to either manually control the process or change the control setpoints. Originally these were known as pneumatic controls, some of which are still in use, whereas today almost all are electronic.

With networks of these controls communicating using industry standard protocols, fairly complex systems can be created. Networking allows the use of local or remote SCADA operator interfaces and cascading and interlocking of controllers. However, as the number of control loops for a system design increases, there is a point at which the use of a programmable logic controller (PLC) or distributed control system (DCS) is more manageable or cost effective.

2. distributed control systems

A distributed control system (DCS) is a digital process control system for a process or plant in which control functions and field connection modules are distributed throughout the system. As the number of control loops increases, DCS becomes more cost-effective than discrete control systems. In addition, a DCS enables the monitoring and management of large industrial processes. In a DCS, a hierarchy of controllers is connected by communication networks that enable central control rooms and on-site monitoring and control.

3. SCADA Systems

Another important module of Industrial Control System (ICS) is supervisory control and data acquisition. It is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications, and graphical user interfaces for higher-level process monitoring management. The operator interfaces that enable the monitoring and issuance of process commands, such as controller setpoint changes, are managed through the SCADA supervisory computer system. However, the real-time control logic or control calculations are performed by networked modules connected to other peripherals, such as programmable logic controllers and discrete PID controllers, that interface with the process plant or machine.

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